Peter Chrysologus, Bishop, Doctor

From Universalis.com:

He was born and died in Imola in northern Italy. He was made bishop of Ravenna, the new capital of the Roman Empire, and was responsible for many of the building works there. The name “Chrysologus” means “golden speech”, and was given to Peter because he was such a gifted preacher; unfortunately, most of his writings have perished, and only a collection of short sermons remains.

Prayer from Morning Prayer:

God our Father,
you made Saint Peter Chrysologus a most eloquent preacher of Christ,
your Word made man.
By the intercession of your saint
help us to meditate constantly in our hearts
on the mysteries by which you saved us,
and to manifest them faithfully in our lives.
Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever.
Amen.

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Feeding the Five Thousand

In the Gospel reading for this Sunday we hear the account from John of Jesus feeding five thousand people with bread and fish who had gathered to hear him preach near Passover along the shores of the Sea of Galilee (called Tiberias in the reading).

After this Jesus went to the other side of the Sea of Galilee, which is the Sea of Tiber’i-as. And a multitude followed him, because they saw the signs which he did on those who were diseased. Jesus went up on the mountain, and there sat down with his disciples. Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand. Lifting up his eyes, then, and seeing that a multitude was coming to him, Jesus said to Philip, “How are we to buy bread, so that these people may eat?” This he said to test him, for he himself knew what he would do. Philip answered him, “Two hundred denarii would not buy enough bread for each of them to get a little.” One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, “There is a lad here who has five barley loaves and two fish; but what are they among so many?” Jesus said, “Make the people sit down.” Now there was much grass in the place; so the men sat down, in number about five thousand. Jesus then took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated; so also the fish, as much as they wanted. And when they had eaten their fill, he told his disciples, “Gather up the fragments left over, that nothing may be lost.” So they gathered them up and filled twelve baskets with fragments from the five barley loaves, left by those who had eaten. When the people saw the sign which he had done, they said, “This is indeed the prophet who is to come into the world!” Perceiving then that they were about to come and take him by force to make him king, Jesus withdrew again to the mountain by himself. (John 6:1-15, RSV)

The miracle of Christ feeding the five thousand– aside from the Resurrection– is the only one mentioned in all four gospels. The miracle is important within the context of the Gospel of John because it forms the co-foundation, along with the miracle of turning water into wine at the Wedding at Cana (John 2:1-11), of John’s emphasis on Jesus as the “bread of life” (John 6:35-59). This idea forms the backbone of our catholic liturgy where Christ gives Himself in the bread and wine forming the Body and Blood and feeding the multitude of His faithful (CCC 1335).

The passover is mentioned three times in the Gospel of John (supporting a three year public ministry of Jesus). It was an annual Jewish celebration to commemorate Israel’s deliverance from Egypt. It involves gathering for a liturgical feast called a seder in which the story of Exodus is retold, unleavened bread with dressed lamb is served and psalms are sung. The importance of passover in this story from John’s gospel is an undercurrent of the on-going narrative as Jesus’ coming to be that of the true “Lamb of God” (John 1:29), whose redeeming work would accomplish a new deliverance from sin (John 8:31-36). The connection between our liturgy and the liturgical meal inherent in the seder is made evident in John 6:53-58:

So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you; he who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats me will live because of me. This is the bread which came down from heaven, not such as the fathers ate and died; he who eats this bread will live for ever.

And further expanded on by Paul in 1 Corinthians 5:7-8 bringing the seder feast, Christ and the Lamb of God together (no doubt strongly inspired by the Holy Spirit):

Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our paschal lamb, has been sacrificed. Let us, therefore, celebrate the festival, not with the old leaven, the leaven of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

Jesus gives thanks to the bread and fish before distributing it to the people. The Greek word used in the original translation of the gospel account is eucharisteo which is where the English word Eucharist derives from. This miracle is a clear foreshadow of the institution of the Last Supper and has a direct link to the celebration of Mass that we catholics gather for on Sunday (and everyday for that matter, all around the world).

God be praised!

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Anna and Joachim, parents of the Virgin Mary

From Universalis.com:

An ancient tradition, already known in the 2nd century, gives these names to the parents of the Virgin Mary. The cult of St Anna became popular in the 6th century in the East, and in the 10th century in the West, where she is the patron saint of Brittany; Joachim was added a long time later – too often the fate of fathers. Although the information about Mary’s parents is found in an early apocryphal writing that gives many miraculous and highly-coloured stories about the early life of the Virgin Mary, there is no reason to suppose that such a straightforward fact as her parents’ names should be wrong, since there is nothing to be gained from falsifying it. It does not occur in the Gospels simply because the most reliable evangelists (the only ones whom we have allowed into the Bible) felt they had more important things to talk about. But what, after all, could be more important than the parents who brought up the Virgin Mary to be the woman she was? At the moment of consenting to the Incarnation she took the most important decision ever taken by any human being, and the fact that she took it is, to a great extent, the work of her parents. The Holy Spirit gave her the strength to take the decision; but her parents’ training gave her the wisdom to choose. Those of us who have children must seek to bring them up to the best of our ability, to meet challenges that, like Anna and Joachim, we have no way of even imagining.

Prayer from Morning Prayer:

Lord, God of our fathers,
you bestowed on Saint Joachim and Saint Anne
this singular grace:
that their daughter, Mary,
should become the Mother of your Son, Jesus Christ.
Grant, at their intercession,
the salvation you promised to your people.
Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever.
Amen.

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Authority of Rome: A Protestant Perspective

This post is the second installment of a series on papal supremacy/infallibility and the authority of Rome. The first installment on the authority of Rome from a Roman Catholic perspective can be found here. The series was the product of fruitful discussion on a post concerning the 185th anniversary of Anglo-Catholicism. Please feel free to comment on any post in the series, or offer your opinion on this callout post for ideas, theories and opinions on the authority of the Bishop of Rome.

Before we begin this post on the protestant perspective of papal authority, it is important to define the boundaries of protestant theology within the context of this post. Dissent among protestants regarding the pope and the Roman Catholic church in general range from opposition to a handful of doctrines to complete rejection of everything catholic all of the way to ascribing a heinous mission for the Roman church as the whore of Babylon spoken about in the Book of Revelations. Before I can begin a discussion outlining the various protestant positions, I would like to make it clear that we will not be concerning ourselves with outlandish, ill-founded and flat out unChristian ideas about the catholic church. This post will specifically focus on the theological positions of the Anglican Communion (disregarding the Anglican Catholic movement in this particular series for now), and Reformed Christian churches. Note that the position of the  Eastern Orthodox and Russian Orthodox churches will not be covered in this series, those will be part of the third and final installment on the authority of Rome from a catholic perspective. If you want some information on extreme positions against the catholic church (if not for curiosity sake), I encourage you to check out Are You Drinking From The Babylon Cup who has a very respectful blog with a lot of information (even if I do not agree with his opinions at all).

Another important item to keep in mind when reading about the various protestant positions on the supremacy of the pope is that historically opposition to the pope did not fall along the lines of how we understand the doctrine today. Given that the formalization of the supremacy/infallibility of the pope was first defined in 1870 at the First Vatican Council and then further defined at the Second Vatican council during the 1960s, we have to remind ourselves when reading about bold statements of opposition to the pope from history, that those dissenters were not writing about the doctrine as defined today, in fact in most cases what they were historically opposing was concurred by the church during the First and Second Vatican councils (more on that below). In history, traditional opposition to the bishop of Rome, rested on his temporal ability to make or end monarchs through out Christian Europe, to forgive regicide and to control the public decisions of catholic secular leaders– all items which were defined by the First and Second Vatican councils as in fact falling outside of the authority of the bishop of Rome.

Protestants the world over generally disregard the doctrine of papal infallibility based on a few common points:

  1. The Roman church relies on a overly literal reading of Matthew 16:18 (when Jesus apparently called Peter the Rock upon which He will build His church). James Robert White points out that in the passage Peter is the second person “you” but that “this rock” (being in the third person), refers to Christ. Protestants read Matthew 16:18 as Christ telling Peter that He is the Rock and Peter (along with the other apostles) is laid upon it to build the church
  2. Protestants point out that this interpretation of Scripture was supported by Saint Augustine of Hippo when he wrote, “on this rock, therefore, He said, which thou hast confessed. I will build my Church. For the Rock (petra) is Christ; and on this foundation was Peter himself built.” (On the Gospel of John Tractate 12435)
  3. Protestants understand “the keys” mentioned by Christ in Matthew 16:19 to be the Word of God which ties in with instructions given to Timothy by Saint Paul regarding the defense of the true gospel accounts by apostles
  4. Reading Luke 22:32 when Jesus prays for Peter’s faith to be returned and strengthened, Protestants assert that infallibility cannot possibility rest with Peter as that would make the prayers of Christ regarding his faith redundant and pointless
  5. Protestants maintain that Peter’s prominence in the Book of Acts is overplayed by Roman Catholics. A reading of Acts as a whole together with the epistles presents a division within the church between Peter and Paul over the admission of Gentiles. During the First Council of Jerusalem, Protestants agree that it appears Peter rose to make final judgement, but the debate leading up to the council played out between Peter and Paul in their letters. Many times Paul rebukes Peter for not accepting Gentiles into the Christian faith as Christ directed. Protestants assert that it is Paul who takes center stage during the Acts of the Apostles and any inclusion of Peter is done to justify Paul’s position of authority among the Christians (many times Paul appeals to how he has the same powers and Spirit as Peter despite not being a direct witness of the life of Jesus Christ)
  6. Protestants point out that no formal Jewish magisterium existed and yet the faith endured for over a thousand years before Christ, Protestants use this historical fact to point out that the Roman Catholic teaching is a new doctrine (more on ‘new doctrines’ will come in the third installment, in this argument Protestants are pulling from the catholic playbook, and it gets a little awkward because of that)
  7. Protestants sift through history and point out several occasions when popes have spoke heresy (as recognized by the Roman church herself today, see mention above about temporal authorities of the pope) and use this to refute the claim that the pope alone is infallible. Specifically, Protestants will ascribe little weight to a pope stepping in to avoid heresy on the grounds that heresy was avoided because the opinion of the pope prevailed, Protestants consider this to be a cyclical argument that is illogical and has absolutely no direct Scripture to back it up
  8. Protestants point out that the Roman claim that monarchical leadership by an infallible pope as being inevitable within the universal church (or the more secular argument that any large organization needs decisive and clear leadership) as being directly contrary to Scripture where the church hierarchy is explained in a more local manner with deacons, priests and bishops (Titus 1:5-7, see also Saint Ignatius of Antioch quote in previous series posts)
  9. Protestants argue that over the entire history of the church, papal infallibility/supremacy lacked universal or widespread acceptance in the Christian world (even within the Roman church herself) which supports the claim that there is a lack of scriptural and historical basis for the doctrine itself. This was the issue addressed by Cardinal Newman in his quote about doctrine not being defined until it has been violated, but a historical review of how the First Vatican Council came to discuss papal authority will reveal that it was on the suspicion by church authorities that Pope Pius IX had overstepped his own authority in unilaterally ruling in favour of the Franciscan view of the Immaculate Conception of Mary over the Dominican view within the church which makes Newman’s casual observation about the defining pre-existing doctrine a little rich, considering the subject was the potential violator in this instance

A simple statement to capture the Protestant position concerning the Roman doctrine of supremacy of the pope can be summed up thus: it is not supported in Scripture or the historical record. They claim that the Roman church relies on a overly literal reading of certain passages of the gospels in order to justify a position of leadership for Peter above the others. Furthermore, they assert that claims to papal supremacy have more to do with secular issues than any ecclesiastical ones (this is supported historically, in that no pope has ever had to exercise papal authority to keep bishops from erring against the Creeds, it has always been done when theological questions fell along potentially new doctrine development, for example asserting the Immaculate Conception of Mary).

Individual Protestant churches have articulated their position on papal authority via various statements of faith or articles of faith. Again, we have to keep in mind that more often than not however, these articles were composed well before 1870 and therefore are not direct objections to how we view the papacy today, but to the clear abuses of papal authority that even the Roman church acknowledges today (no reasonable catholic argues that the pope has the authority to make or break world leaders or demand that a catholic government official does something).

The Anglican Church articulates her position against papal authority in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion (which according to Anglo-Catholics contains nothing which is contrary to true catholic teaching):

XIX. Of the Church. The visible Church of Christ is a congregation of faithful men, in which the pure Word of God is preached, and the Sacraments be duly ministered according to Christ’s ordinance, in all those things that of necessity are requisite to the same. As the Church of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch, have erred, so also the Church of Rome hath erred, not only in their living and manner of Ceremonies, but also in matters of Faith.

XXI. Of the Authority of General Councils. General Councils may not be gathered together without the commandment and will of Princes. And when they be gathered together, (forasmuch as they be an assembly of men, whereof all be not governed with the Spirit and Word of God,) they may err, and sometimes have erred, even in things pertaining unto God. Wherefore things ordained by them as necessary to salvation have neither strength nor authority, unless it may be declared that they be taken out of holy Scripture.

Note how the Anglican Church acknowledges that councils and the faithful are subject to err and that they have erred in the past but that the metric for determining the error was not a secular office, but the Word of God itself.

John Wesley amended the Anglican Articles of Faith for use by Methodists. The Methodist Articles of Faith are similar to the Thirty-Nine Articles but omit the lamenting about councils being in error in the past, or capable of error in general:

V. Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for Salvation. The Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation; so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man that it should be believed as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation..

Reformed churches and Presbyterian churches reject papal infallibility outright. The Westminster Confession of Faith, which was meant to replace the Thirty-Nine Articles of Faith in 1646, outright call the pope the ‘anti-Christ’:

(Chapter one) IX. The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself: and therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.

(Chapter one) X. The supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.

(Chapter Twenty-Five) VI. There is no other head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ. Nor can the Pope of Rome, in any sense, be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalts himself, in the Church, against Christ and all that is called God.

Evangelical and Pentecostal churches all reject the authority of the Pope. As does the Church of Latter Day Saints and the Jehovah’s Witness. These churches tend to oppose the pope along the same theological lines as the Methodists (going so far as to call the pope the anti-Christ and ascribe heinous intentions regarding its formation).

The next installment of our series will cover the authority of Rome from the catholic perspective. It will require the reader to divorce the concepts of Roman and catholic and to understand them as two separate things. We will cover the position of the Orthodox churches, the Old Catholics and the Anglican Catholic perspective. To get the brain working before that installment is released, I leave you with this article from the 1860 edition of Keenan’s Catechism which was widely in use across England, Scotland and Wales within Roman Catholic schools (it was approved for use after being found to contain no catholic doctrinal error):

(Q.) Must not Catholics believe the Pope himself to be infallible?

(A.) This is a Protestant invention: it is no article of the Catholic faith: no decision of his can oblige under pain of heresy, unless it be received and enforced by the teaching body, that is by the bishops of the Church.

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James, Apostle

From Universalis.com:

He was the brother of St John and, like him, a fisherman. He was one of the witnesses of the Transfiguration and one of those who slept through most of the Agony in the Garden. He was the first of the apostles to be martyred, being beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I to please the Jewish opponents of Christianity. He was buried in Jerusalem, and nothing more is known about him until the ninth century. At this time we learn of a tradition that the relics of St James were brought to Spain some time after his martyrdom, (perhaps early, perhaps as late as 830), and his shrine at Compostela in Galicia grew in importance until it became the greatest pilgrimage centre in western Europe. In every country there are churches of St James and known, well-trodden pilgrim routes. In Paris, the Tour St Jacques marks the start of the route and the Rue St Jacques points straight towards Compostela. In England, pilgrim routes lead from all parts of the country to the major ports that were used on the pilgrimage. This network of routes is a vital witness to the fact that the Middle Ages were not the static stay-at-home time that we often think them to be: everyone must have known someone, or known someone who knew someone, who had made the pilgrimage. The scallop-shell, the emblem of St James, has become the emblem of pilgrims generally. In 1987 the pilgrimage routes to Compostela were designated by the Council of Europe as historical cultural routes of international importance. The Confraternity of St James continues to work to restore and upgrade the refuges on a route which is still in active pilgrim use today.

Antiphon to the Canticle of Zechariah in Morning Prayer:

Jesus took Peter, James, and John the brother of James, and led them up a high mountain where they were alone; and in their presence he was transfigured.

Prayer from Morning Prayer for the Feast of Saint James, Apostle:

Lord God,
you accepted the sacrifice of Saint James,
the first of your apostles to give his life for your sake.
May your Church find strength in his martyrdom
and support in his constant prayer.
Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever.
Amen.

Editor’s note: Saint James holds a particularly special place for me as the patron of my family name. If you have time today I ask that you incorporate the intercession of Saint James for my family as you mark this special day in prayer. Thank you and God bless!

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Charbel Makhlouf, Priest

From Universalis.com:

He was born in the Lebanon, the son of a mule-driver, and brought up by his uncle, who did not approve of his devotion to prayer and solitude. He would go secretly to the monastery of St Maron at Annaya, and eventually became a Maronite monk and was ordained priest. After being a monk for many years, he was drawn to a closer imitation of the Desert Fathers and became a hermit. At his hermitage he lived a severely ascetic life with much prayer and fasting. He refused to touch money and considered himself the servant of anyone who came to stay in the three other cells that the hermitage possessed. He spent the last 23 years of his life there, and increasing numbers of people would come to receive his counsel or his blessing.

Prayer from Morning Prayer:

God our Father, in Saint Charbel Makhlouf you gave a light to your faithful people.
You made him a pastor of the Church
to feed your sheep with his word
and to teach them by his example.
Help us by his prayers to keep the faith he taught
and follow the way of life he showed us.
Grant this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever.
Amen.

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Authority of Rome: A Roman Perspective

A very interesting discussion has unfolded on this blog concerning the authority of Rome and whether such authority is legitimate and catholic. It started with a post I had written on the 185th anniversary of Anglo-Catholicism with a historic sermon delivered by John Keble at the University Church of St Mary’s in Oxford. Ben (Politics for Catholics) and Must Follow If I Can both added substantial comments on the subject of the supremacy/infallibility of the pope. I also added a callout for opinions on the authority of Rome (that was where Must Follow If I Can jumped into the discussion) I would be remiss not to admit that this topic appears to have dominated by intended summer series on the catholic liturgy– but clearly the Spirit is alive and well around here and there is a need to explore this topic.

In this post we will examine the authority of the Bishop of Rome from the perspective of the Roman church. We will dive into the teachings of the Roman Catholic church concerning the supremacy and infallibility of the Bishop of Rome and how this manifests itself in the day to day workings of the church as a whole. We will specifically focus on the articulation of the doctrine during the First and Second Vatican councils.

The Roman Catholic church teaches that the Bishop of Rome is the “true vicar of Christ, the head of the whole church and the father and teacher of all Christians” (Pastor aeternus Chapter 4, para 2, First Vatican Council from the Council of Florence). This authority stems from a link between Peter the Apostle to the bishop of Rome which was articulated during the Council of Lyons, “[s]he truly and humbly acknowledges that she received this from the Lord himself in blessed Peter, the prince and chief of the apostles, whose successor the Roman Pontiff is, together with the fullness of power.” The Roman Catholic church relies on nine sources of scripture to defend the link:

  1. Peter is listed on the top of the ‘apostolic list’ when Jesus calls His followers together (Mk 3:16, Lk 6:14)
  2. Peter is often singled out among the other apostles (MK 1:36, 16:7, Lk 9:32)
  3. When the temple tax collectors approach Jesus’ followers to collect the required taxes, they approach Peter which signifies his eminent position of leadership within the group (Mk 17:24-27)
  4. Peter often spoke to Jesus on behalf of the twelve apostles (Mk 8:29, Lk 12:41, Jn 6:66-69)
  5. Peter is one of the three apostles who is given special attention by Jesus; when Jairus’ daughter is raised from the dead (Mk 5:37), during the Transfiguration (Mk 9:2), witness to the Agony in the Garden (Mk 14:33) and Peter is renamed by Jesus as well from Simon to Peter meaning ‘rock’ (Mk 3:16)
  6. Jesus told Peter that He prayed for him personally at the Last Supper that Peter would turn again and steady the faith of his brother apostles (Lk 22:31-32)
  7. When the tomb is found empty and Peter and John find out, John races ahead of Peter but waits at the entrance for Peter to enter first (or with him), signifying the esteem the other apostles held Peter in (Jn 20:3-8)
  8. Jesus appears privately to Peter after the Resurrection and Peter is the first of the twelve apostles to witness the Risen Christ (Lk 24:34, 1 Cor 15:5)
  9. Jesus promised that He would build His church on Peter (Mk 16:18), make him the keeper of the keys to the Gates of Heaven (Mk 16:19) and put Peter in charge of His sheep (Jn 21:15-17)

The Council of Florence articulated the hierarchical structure of the Roman Catholic church with the Bishop of Rome at the top, followed by the Bishops, followed by the Priests and then the laity. The Council spoke of the “pre-eminence” of Rome which was made clear in previous historical events in which Rome rules on heresies within the church (as pointed out in the comments, the overruling of Pope Leo the Great following the Council of Chalcedon).

The First Vatican Council formalized and crystallized the authority of the Bishop of Rome in the dogmatic constitution, Pastor aeternus. That document states clearly that the Pope has supreme authority over:

…matters of faith and morals … and … discipline and government of the church throughout the world.

And furthermore, the constitution called on all members of the church to obedience on the doctrine at hand:

…clergy and faithful, of whatever rite and dignity, … bound to submit to this power by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience.

The Second Vatican Council continued to see the fruit of the doctrine of Papal supremacy and infallibility grow on the tree of faith. In the dogmatic constitution on the church (Lumen gentium), the manifestation of the articles contained within Pastor aeternus were explored further, especially in regard to how the Roman Pontiff worked with fellow bishops from around the world. What arose was an ecumenical concept that called for “bishops [to be] joined with one another, and the Bishop of Rome, by bonds of unity, charity, and peace.” (Eusebius of Caesarea, Hist. Ecc.). How we understand the Pope today in the modern church is the function of the articulation of the doctrine during the First and Second Vatican councils. A lot of scholarly reading that I did over the weekend on Lumen gentium spoke with a hopeful tone of how the new concept of the Bishops working together with the Bishop of Rome would materialize in the church. Today we see this with national, regional and topical synods that produce rich and thoughtful theology and dogma to inform the vicar of Christ and indeed the whole church. It is because of this careful balance between supremacy and ecumenism that was developed from the First and Second Vatican councils that we can say today that a unilateral action of the Bishop of Rome has not happened in modern times, and most likely will not happen in modern times– that is not to say he lacks the authority to do this. But it speaks to the secular practicality of the governance of the church as a whole, when the system  which has been developed (or inspired) eases historical tensions.

Furthermore, Lumen gentium explained the relationship between the Bishop of Rome and his fellow bishops thusly:

But the college or body of bishops has no authority unless it is understood together with the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter as its head. The pope’s power of primacy over all, both pastors and faithful, remains whole and intact. In virtue of his office, that is as Vicar of Christ and pastor of the whole Church, the Roman Pontiff has full, supreme and universal power over the Church. And he is always free to exercise this power. The order of bishops, which succeeds to the college of apostles and gives this apostolic body continued existence, is also the subject of supreme and full power over the universal Church, provided we understand this body together with its head the Roman Pontiff and never without this head.

The Roman Catholic Church maintains that the authority of the bishop of Rome was present in Peter from the start of the early church. For this it largely relies on nine moments from the Acts of the Apostles:

  1. Peter initiated and oversaw the replacement of Judas following the Ascension of Jesus (Acts 1:15-26)
  2. When the Spirit rained down on the apostles during Pentecost, it was Peter who delivered the inaugural sermon (Acts 2:37-41)
  3. When crowds accepted the testimony of the apostles, it was Peter who urged them to repent and be Baptized (Acts 2:37-41)
  4. It was Peter who recorded the first healing within the church (Acts 3:1-10)
  5. When Peter and John were arrested and asked to account for their actions, it was Peter who spoke on their behalf (Acts 4:5-12)
  6. Peter handled the first case of ecclesial discipline within the church (Acts 5:1-11)
  7. It was Peter who brought the Spirit to endorse the new missionary as the church spread beyond Judea and into Samaria (Acts 8:14-17)
  8. When God had arranged for the first Gentile conversations, He sent Peter to preach and administer the Baptisms (Acts 10:1-48)
  9. When the first recorded council in church history took place in Jerusalem, it was Peter who stood up and ended the debate with a solemn proclamation of Christian doctrine (Acts 15:6-11)

The Roman Catholic church maintains that this authority has developed over time within the church. Cardinal John Henry Newman (thanks to Must Follow If I Can for the quote) provides one the best explanations for the development of the papacy when we look through the historical record in his Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine:

When the Church, then, was thrown upon her own resources, first local disturbances gave exercise to Bishops, and next ecumenical disturbances gave exercise to Popes; and whether communion with the Pope was necessary for Catholicity would not and could not be debated till a suspension of that communion had actually occurred. It is not a greater difficulty that St. Ignatius does not write to the Asian Greeks about Popes, than that St. Paul does not write to the Corinthians about Bishops. And it is a less difficulty that the Papal supremacy was not formally acknowledged in the second century, than that there was no formal acknowledgment on the part of the Church of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity till the fourth. No doctrine is defined till it is violated.

And, in like manner, it was natural for Christians to direct their course in matters of doctrine by the guidance of mere floating, and, as it were, endemic tradition, while it was fresh and strong; but in proportion as it languished, or was broken in particular places, did it become necessary to fall back upon its special homes, first the Apostolic Sees, and then the See of St. Peter.

The Second Council of Lyons I think sums up the authority of the Bishop of Rome from the Roman perspective in one simple line: the Bishop of Rome is the head of the “Holy Roman church [with] … supreme and full primacy and principality over the whole catholic church.”

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Bridget of Sweden, Religious

From Universalis.com:

She was married to a nobleman and had eight children. At the age of 30 she was summoned to the court of the King of Sweden, where she served as lady-in-waiting to the queen. She tried without much success to moderate the riotous and indecent life of the royal court. After a pilgrimage to the shrine of St James at Compostela in Spain, Bridget and her husband Ulf decided to spend the rest of their lives in monasteries. Ulf died in 1344, but Bridget went on to found a double monastery (for men and women in separate but adjacent institutions) as the start of a new monastic order. In 1350 she travelled to Rome for the Holy Year, and spent the rest of her life there caring for the poor and the sick, denouncing the excesses of the aristocracy, and robustly telling the Pope to return to Rome from Avignon. She had many mystical visions, which alarmed her because she feared that they might be the work of the Devil; but a learned Cistercian monk reassured her, and she subsequently dictated and published the revelations she received, which were partially devotional and partly prophetic.

Prayer from Morning Prayer:

Lord our God,
as Saint Bridget contemplated your Son our Lord Jesus Christ,
you revealed to her the mysteries of his passion.
Grant that we may rejoice, in time to come,
in the revelation of your glory.
Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever.
Amen.

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From ‘What’ to ‘Whom’

The Gospel according to Saint John is one of my most treasured books of the New Testament to use as a base for meditation and prayer. It is easy to dive into the synoptic Gospels with concordance, commentary and study Bible in hand to cross reference passages, compare events with other historical evidence and build up the three year mission that was Christ on earth. It is not as easy with the Gospel of John. But it is easy to get lost in the mystical, metaphysical and flat out supernatural depths of the Gospel of John. And we see this right from the opening passage of his account of Jesus:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (John 1:1)

I could spend (and have) hours praying, thinking and expanding on that single line. Saint John grasps the concept of the Logos (Greek: “statement” or “utterance”) which was present in Greek and Roman culture as an association to the order of the universe. Very common to what we would call the natural law today. And what Saint John is telling the whole world (in a very catholic sense) is that Christ is the Logos, Jesus is the Word, the same Word that was present when the world was made (Genesis 1:1) and the same Word which all things were made through (the order, so to speak). This message is universal because shadows of it existed and still exists today within the world outside of the Church. This is because the Word is Truth and relevant in everything we do as creatures created by God through the Word.

But in this post I want to focus on just two very small parts of John’s Gospel that I think have profound implications for the mission of Christ and how we understand the relationships between the Covenant in the Old Testament and the New Covenant in the New Testament.

When we speak of the Gospels from a literary analysis perspective, all four can in fact be placed into a particular Greek genre known as bioi (Latin: vitae) which roughly means Lives. This genre of writings in Greek and Roman society were more than just a biographical sketch capturing the life of the individual from a unbiased perspective, rather the author sought to convey the virtues and greatness of the individual (desirable traits in ancient Greek/Roman society) by writing about key events in their life and demonstrating said virtues and greatness subjectively through the observance of their actions. Greek authors such as Xenophon and Plutarch (and Romans such as Tactius and Sueontius) were popular for these writings on significant Greek/Roman public figures. When studying the Gospels from a literary perspective, we can say that the four Gospels is the bioi of Jesus of Nazareth. It that bioi has hallmarks of Greek writing, such as placing an emphasis on the first words of an individual.

So with that in mind, what are the first words spoken by Christ in the Gospel of John? It happens after John the Baptist is introduced, while Jesus is seen walking along the shores of the Jorden River by some disciples of John;

The next day again John was standing with two of his disciples, and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God!” The two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus. Jesus turned and saw them following, and said to them, “What do you seek?” (John 1:35-38)

Jesus turns to the disciples of John, who have started to following Jesus along the shores of the Jordan, and He asks them clearly; what do you seek? What. This single line probably seems rather innocuous, it does not even get specific mention in my catholic study Bible. But let’s take a look at the first words spoken by Jesus after He has risen from the dead;

Saying this, she [Mary Magdalene] turned round and saw Jesus standing, but she did not know that it was Jesus. Jesus said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping? Whom do you seek?” (John 20:14-15)

The Risen Christ asks Mary not what she is looking for, He now asks whom are you looking for (whom do you seek)? I think that this transition from what to whom that we can see clearly in the Gospel of John from the start of Jesus’ earthly ministry to the start of Jesus’ heavenly one, signifies the transition of the Law to Christ. From the what to the whom.

For the Jew around the time of Christ, faith was all about what one had to do to gain salvation. It was about living a uniquely Jewish life as God’s chosen people among a sea of Gentiles and unholiness. This is why the Temple was divided into two major portions, one where people would give sacrifice and offerings to God around the outside of the core Inner Temple– where God resided. That place was only accessed once a year by the High Priest with a blood offering on behalf of all of the unworthy people outside. Day to day Jews laboured and toiled to live out in accordance with the law, and they were supported by the Priests who laboured to understand the Will of God when it came to His acceptance of their sacrifice. It was all about the what.

But Jesus came. And what Jesus literally did was enter into the Inner Temple on our behalf without any authority from the Priests of the day (because He had authority and power from His Father, God) and He did not bring with Him a blood offering, for the living Divine Blood coursing through His human veins was the offering and it would be the final offering. Thus ending the requirement for the Temple and shattering any concept of what when it came to seeking God. Now when we reach out to God we do ask for what do we seek, we ask for whom do we seek and the answer is Christ, our High Priest and Final Sacrifice that removed us from the bondage of sin once and for all.

The Old Testament, for the most part, is all about the what. It is telling us about what is to come, about what we have to do in the meantime and what went wrong to explain how we ended up where we are in the world. The New Testament, for the most part, is all about the whom– and that whom illuminates the Old Testament in retrospect. It no longer is about what is to come, but whom is to come. Not what we have to do in the meantime, but what the One who came showed us by example to do. And it is not about what what wrong in the world, but who came to finally save us from sin.

From what to whom. What a powerful and amazing change. And everything in between is justification for the change. Let’s today not ask what we have to do…let us ask about the one who gave His life for us and purchased everlasting life!

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Laurence of Brindisi

From Universalis.com:

He was born in Brindisi, joined the Capuchin Friars, and studied at the University of Padua, where he learned a number of languages (including Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, French, and German) and acquired a deep knowledge of the Bible. His principal vocation was preaching. He preached all over Europe, not just to Catholics but to Protestants (because of his knowledge of Scripture) and to Jews (because of his knowledge of Hebrew). He wrote many sermons, commentaries, and works of controversy in support of this vocation. His administrative talents meant that he also held a number of high administrative offices in the Capuchin order. He was also entrusted with many important diplomatic missions. On one of these, he not only persuaded the German princes to help defend Hungary from the invading Turks, but also led their troops into battle, armed only with a crucifix. He was engaged in another delicate mission, to plead the cause of the oppressed people of Naples to King Philip III of Spain, when he died in Lisbon. For Laurence of Brindisi, preaching was the most important task of his life; but he took care to ensure that his preaching was backed by sound learning, so that he could preach to and not at his audiences. Let us take care that our own apostolate is similarly well founded.

Prayer from Morning Prayer:

Lord God, you bestowed on Saint Laurence of Brindisi
the spirit of counsel and fortitude,
so that your name might be glorified and souls be saved.
At the intercession of Saint Laurence
grant that we may see what we have to do,
and, in your mercy, give us the strength to do it.
Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
one God, for ever and ever.
Amen.

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