Luke (Greek: Loukan) was a physician and companion of the Apostle Paul. Early Church Fathers such as Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria assert Luke’s authorship of the third Gospel book account of Jesus Christ. There is very little reason to doubt Luke’s authorship of this Gospel. In addition to writing the Gospel, Luke is ascribed authorship of the Acts of the Apostles and together these books make up what scholars refer to as Luke-Acts; a two part account of the life of Christ and the founding of His Holy Church. Together the two books comprise over one quarter of the entire New Testament, making Luke the largest single contributor to the NT. Luke opens his Gospel by telling the person he has dedicated the writings to, that he wishes to provide an “orderly account” (1:3) of the life of Jesus, and that is just what we get with this Gospel.
Traditionally, through Luke’s writings and what little is known about his life, scholars have described him as being a Gentile akin to Paul but in recent times he has been theorized as being a Hellenistic Jew, which would have separated him from his Temple ordinance following brethren in the apostles of Christ. Regardless of his ethnic background, Luke presents an exacting account of the life of Christ which is beautifully structured and which he claims to have “followed all things closely” that the reader “may know the truth concerning the things of which you have been informed.” (1:3)
There is no scholarly consensus on when Luke’s Gospel was composed. The dates among scholars range from 60-80 AD but for many reasons it appears the earlier date range would be more appropriate. This is not so much because of what Luke says in his Gospel and Acts but what he doesn’t mention– his silence on certain issues speaks louder than his words. For example,
- Acts ends abruptly after Paul is in prison around 62 AD, but does not speak of his trial or his subsequent martyrdom.
- Luke writes in Acts to Christianity’s relationship with Rome, he does not mention the well documented Roman persecutions which started in mid-60 AD.
- And in neither the Gospel or the Acts of the Apostles is there mention of the destruction of the Temple by the Romans in 70 AD.
These are a strong indication that Luke’s Gospel and the Book of Acts were written in the early 60s AD, before any of these events had happened.
Luke addressed his Gospel and subsequent Acts of the Apostles to Theophilus who was possibly a Roman official who agreed to finance the works. The name means friend of God or more closely beloved by God or loving God. In that sense, it is also possible that Theophilus is not a single person and may be a group of early Christians involved in funding the works, or Luke could be addressing a wider audience of Christians. At any rate, there is no doubt that Luke intended for his Gospel and Acts to be read beyond the patronage of Theophilus and it did spread into the wider Mediterranean world with particular impact among Gentile Christians. Luke often removes Semitic words or outright replaces them with their Greek equivalent and the entire Greek text is written in a form and style of Greek that alludes to his higher education and formation in Greek culture. It is also clear in the literary devices employed by Luke, that he assumes his reader will have a clear and ready understanding of the Scriptures of Israel. In this sense, reading the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles is much like watching a television show with many references to popular culture and outside stories/jokes that requires the viewer to know and understand these tropes and jokes in order to fully appreciate the richness of the show and the writing.
Luke’s Gospel is logically arranged. Generally, the Gospel follows the similar storyline as Matthew and Mark. He opens with a traditional prologue and then with the Infancy Narrative, followed by Jesus’ preparations for Ministry, and then His Galilean Ministry into the Journey to Jerusalem, the Passion Week Narratives including the crucifixion and finally ending with the Resurrection and Ascension.
Luke has three major themes through his Gospel:
- The Salvation of Israel. Luke anchors his Gospel in the tradition of Israel and mimics the founding of the nation of Israel during the entire Infancy Narrative of Christ. He thus clearly identifies Jesus as the Messiah who comes in the line of David to reunite the scattered tribes of Israel by gathering them into his Kingdom.
- The Salvation of the Nations. The forgiveness that Jesus offers to the people of Israel is extended to the Gentiles as well according to Luke, and early in his Gospel we hear Simeon calling Jesus “a light for revelation to the Gentiles.” (2:32). John the Baptist, channeling Isaiah, says that “all flesh” can now look to Christ for salvation (3:6). And Jesus tells his apostles that salvation must be carried “to all nations” (24:27).
- The Salvation of the Lowly. Luke emphasizes a number of statements made by Jesus concerning outcasts, the poor and disreputable among us. Women in particular are showcased throughout Luke’s Gospel despite their relative low social standing in that time period.
In addition to his three themes, Luke brings the curious eye of a scientific man to his Gospel account. While there was certainly no such thing as the scientific method at this time, there was a methodology of study that Luke would have undoubtedly been exposed to as a Greek pupil. Of all of the Gospel writers, Luke presents the most “western” account of Jesus’ life, ministry and early church because he writes in the style and authority of a learned professional with a critical eye. His descriptions of the sick and elderly through out his entire account reveal his medical acumen and curiosity. And his literary style is robust and clear in a manner that allows any reader to come back time and time again to his Gospel and Acts to dive ever more deeper into the alliterations, allegories and beautiful rhetorical devices employed throughout these stalwart Biblical books. Both the substance and the style of the Gospel according to Saint Luke come together to articulate the sole purpose of the document giving us an “orderly account” of the life of Christ, His ministry and His conquering of sin and death.